Java vs. Kotlin vs. PHP: differences and use cases

What is Javascript? 

JavaScript is best known as a scripting language for web pages, it is also used in many non-browser environments such as node.js or Apache CouchDB. It is a prototype-based multi-paradigm scripting language that is dynamic and supports object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles.

Pro 

  • Usable in both frontend and backend
  • Lots of frameworks
  • Fast and light

Cons

  • Too unpredictable
  • There is no way to control memory usage 
  • No output in case of error

Uses of Java 

Applications 

Let’s start by emphasizing that the Android operating system is strictly based on Java and that Android phones consistently garner more than 85% market share. Add to this the fact that most mobile app developers call Java their official programming language. Java is compatible with app design software such as Kotlin and Android Studio. Java Platform, Micro Edition (alternatively called Java ME or J2ME) works as a cross-platform framework for building applications that run on all devices that support Java.

GUI Applications

stands for Graphic User Interface and Java allows GUI development via resources such as Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT), JavaFX, and Swing. AWT has several predefined components such as buttons, lists, menus, and several third party components.

Java web servers and application servers

The robust Java ecosystem has given rise to numerous web servers and Java applications. The web server space hosts servlets such as Apache Tomcat, Project Jigsaw, and Rimfaxe Web Server (RWS). Meanwhile, servlets like WebLogic, WebSphere, and JBoss EAP have a solid foundation in the commercial application server space.

What is Kotlin

Kotlin is a static programming language for JVM, Android, and browser, 100% interoperable with Java

Pro 

  • Interoperable with Java
  • Official Android support
  • Concise

Cons

  • Frequent use of keys {}
  • There is no standard code
  • The community is not very friendly

Uses of Kotlin

Kotlin for Android 

Kotlin is supported as a first-class language on Android. There are hundreds of applications that already use Kotlin for Android, such as Basecamp, Pinterest, and others.

Kotlin for server development

Kotlin is 100% compatible with JVM and as such, you can use any existing framework such as Spring Boot, vert.x, or JSF. Also, there are specific frameworks written in Kotlin such as Ktor.

Kotlin for web development

In addition to using for web backend, you can also use Kotlin / JS for the client-side. Kotlin can use DefinitelyTyped definitions to achieve static typing for common JavaScript libraries and is compatible with existing module systems such as AMD and CommonJS.

What is PHP

Fast, flexible, and pragmatic, PHP powers everything from your blog to the most popular websites in the world.

Pro

  • Very large community
  • Easy to use
  • Fantastic frameworks

Cons

  • inconsistent API
  • Not very secure
  • Community too fragmented

Uses of PHP

Server-side scripting

This is the most traditional and main field for PHP. It takes three things to make it work: the PHP parser (CGI or server module), a web server, and a web browser. You need to run the webserver, with a PHP installation attached. You can access the PHP program output with a web browser by viewing the PHP page via the server.

Command Line Scripting

This type of use is ideal for scripts that are run regularly using cron (on * nix or Linux) or Task Scheduler (on Windows). These scripts can also be used for simple word processing tasks. 

Writing desktop applications

PHP probably is not the best language for creating a desktop application with a graphical user interface, but if you are very familiar with PHP and want to use some advanced PHP features in client-side applications, you can also use PHP-GTK to write such programs. You also have the option of writing cross-platform applications this way.

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